Crafting Smiles: The Art and Science of Prosthodontics

Aesthetic dentistry has now advanced to a unique specialty named prosthodontics which concentrates on providing restorative solutions to dental aesthetic issues. In addition to crafting beautiful and confident smiles, prosthodontics is involved in improving the functionality of teeth and keeping the oral faculties healthy and happy. From understanding the patient’s aesthetic aspirations to creating oral solutions that are beneficial for the patient is a journey that is undertaken by prosthodontists. 

Branches of Prosthodontics

There are four primary branches of prosthodontics – fixed, removable, implants, and maxillofacial prosthodontics.

  • Fixed Prosthodontics Prosthetic dentistry where the final solution is permanently fixed and cannot be removed. Correction of tooth discolorations, evening out of teeth, fixing of broken teeth or cracks, dental crowns, inlays and onlays, dental fillings, veneers, and bonding are all examples of fixed prosthodontics.
  • Removable Prosthodontics – dental prosthetics that can be easily removed by the patient. Complete set of dentures, partial dentures, and gingival veneers for covering tooth discolorations are examples of removable prosthodontics and are mainly used for patients who are ageing or have health issues that do not support fixed prosthodontic solutions. 
  • Implant Prosthodontics – Prosthodontic treatments include dentures, dental implants, crowns and bridges to replace missing or damaged teeth that come under implant prosthodontics. These implants are surgically placed in the patient’s jawbone to act as tooth roots or base supports to receive the prosthetics. 
  • Maxillofacial Prosthetics – Misshapen hard and soft tissues due to an injury, medical condition, or even from birth that affect how patients speak, eat, or their oral functions in general can be corrected through maxillofacial prosthetics. Some examples of treatment include correction of cleft palate, full oral reconstruction, and treatment of jaw problems. 

Designing Confidence: How Prosthodontics Enhances Aesthetics and Function

Having a defined mouth and smile can add on to a person’s confidence and boost his / her self-esteem. However, that is not the primary aim of prosthodontics. The oral health issues that they set to rectify include compromised oral function due to missing or severely damaged teeth, TMJ (temporomandibular joint) pain or dysfunction, pain of the mouth or face, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Prosthodontics have contributed considerably towards making oral health better in addition to the more obvious aspect of improving the aesthetics of a person’s smile. They can help to improve the patient’s bite and his / her ability to chew or speak properly, correct TMJ issues and improve their oral function and nutritional intake while maintaining the integrity of the surrounding oral structures (like jawbone and adjacent teeth) and reducing risk of oral diseases or other complications. 

Innovations in Prosthodontic Design and Fabrication

The rapid advancements in dental biomedical science, clinical and laboratory techniques and technologies has triggered many innovations in prosthodontics. Digitization has been one of the most important factors that opened up and broadened the scope of prosthodontics, be it in the clinical or laboratory processes. 

  • CAD-CAM technology has enabled the creation of superior restorative prosthetics like maxillofacial prosthesis, extraoral radiation devices, personalised breathing masks, and face protection systems. 
  • Rapid prototyping is an automation advancement that helps to produce specialized prosthetic components after assessing human factors and ergonomics without human intervention, thereby bringing down product costs and development time 
  • Stereolithography has made it possible to make contact-free facial reproductions, duplicate copies of anatomical sections within a short timeframe and at less cost, and can account for patient development and material flaws.
  • Digital Impressioning has vastly improved the quality, consistency, and accuracy of imprints for the design and creation of prosthetics

Prosthodontics in Complex Dental Cases

In complex dental cases, it is important to have a detailed examination with digitized technology to correctly assess the problem beyond routine peridontal examination and bite analysis and the treatment plan is formulated after studying the patient’s oral health, general medical health, and medications. Treatment may often involve interdisciplinary intervention with orthodontics and prosthodontics depending on the nature and extent of the problem. 

oral pathology

Microbial Mysteries: Navigating the Landscape of Oral Pathology and Microbiology

Oral pathology is the branch of dentistry and pathology which is concerned with identifying the causes, processes and effects of diseases teeth, gums, bones, joints, glands, skin, and muscles around your mouth (at both macroscopic and microscopic levels) and treating them. The oral pathologists use clinical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical or other examinations to study symptoms and manage treatment of their patients. Oral microbiology is the study of the microbiota or microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) that cause diseases in the oral cavity. Oral microbiologists study the impact of the microbiota on oral health so as to track disease progression. Together, oral pathology and microbiology provide the research and clinical practice necessary to understand and manage oral health. 

Role of Pathogens in Oral Disorders

Oral health conditions can be broadly classified into – dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal gum disease, edentulism (total tooth loss), oro-dental trauma, noma (severe gangrene of mouth and face), infectious diseases like oral herpes, and oral cancers. Pathogens play an important role in each of these health conditions. Even where the primary cause for the oral disease is poor oral hygiene, heredity, lack of access to proper oral care, or mouth injury trauma, the disease is often accelerated by the presence of pathogens which affect the teeth, gums and bone surrounding or supporting the teeth. Risk behaviours like consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and an unhealthy diet rich in carbohydrates aid the growth of pathogens causing oral disorders. 

Understanding Pathological Transformations

Oral cancers are potentially life-threatening and require immediate treatment. Caused due to  genetic, epigenetic, microbial, habitual, and lifestyle factors, the early signs of the cancer include oral lesions, inherited genetic mutations (dyskeratosis congenital syndrome), and viral infections (HPV). The oral lesions are broadly categorized under oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Early detection, prevention, and treatment of OPMDs is key to help prevent its malignant transformation into oral cancer. 

Exploring Cutting-Edge Research in Oral Pathology and  Microbiology

Effectively utilizing rapidly advancing molecular techniques for diagnosis of harmful oral microbiota along with the use of traditional detection methods has expanded our understanding of their association  with health and disease. By using saliva as a diagnostic tool, it is now possible to detect oral diseases early and accurately. The biomarkers present in saliva provide a true reflection of specific oral conditions as well as about overall oral health.

Some of the emerging therapies that have gained popularity due to their effectiveness are:

Gene Editing – Recent advancements using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) / CRISPR-associated nucleases (CRISPR/Cas) system have made it easy to identify genetic models that harbour oral diseases and developmental defects. 

Phage Therapy – There is an abundance of bacteriophage in the oral cavity that could possibly penetrate biofilms more effectively than antimicrobial treatments for biofilm removals. This will help overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance that is turning out to be a serious threat to human health. Phage therapy is still in the nascent stage and research is ongoing to figure out whether the bacteriophage can be engineered to enhance biofilm breakdown by releasing biofilm-degrading enzymes.

best bds colleges in kerala

PMS Dental College – Standing Tall Among The Best BDS Colleges In Kerala

Kerala has earned wide acclaim for its well-established healthcare system, qualified medical professionals, state-of-the-art facilities and advanced treatments in all specialties, including dentistry. From 1959, when the first Government Dental College was set up in Thiruvananthapuram, the state has made great strides and the best BDS colleges in Kerala provide quality dental education to its students so that patients can receive excellent dental care from professionals with strong academic background and practical expertise.

Setting Up of PMS Dental College

PMS College of Dental Science and Research, located in Thiruvananthapuram Kerala, is widely recognized as one of the best BDS colleges in Kerala. Established in 2002, this college affiliated to the Kerala University of Health Sciences (KUHS) is recognized by the Dental Council of India (DCI) and is the first Dental College in Kerala with NAAC Accreditation for Health Education. The college has a range of international and national collaborations, as well as advanced dental care facilities and a commitment to high-quality dental research. 

Faculty Expertise: Nurturing Tomorrow’s Dentists

The faculty at PMS College of Dental Science and Research are highly qualified, experienced and with expertise in their dental specialties. The guidance and expertise of these established faculty members has been instrumental in the setting up of BDS and MDS courses in 8 specialties as well as a centre for Ph. D studies in 6 dental specialties for budding dentists and Para dental Courses viz Diploma in Dental Hygienist, Dental Mechanic, and Dental Operating Room Assistant as a Value Added Education program for upcoming para-dental professionals. 

Clinical Exposure: From Simulation Labs to Real-World Practice

Early Clinical Exposure is a methodology which encourages exposure of dental students to patients (actual human contact) as early as the first year of dental education, in a social or clinical context that adds on to their textbook learning of health, illness or disease. At PMS College of Dental Sciences and Research, we provide our students with a wide clinical exposure from simulation labs and hands-on patient interaction and dental practice. The clinical exposure is designed to enrich the learning and experience of the students and equip them with tools to move on to the next phase of their study or careers.

Research Opportunities: Shaping Innovators in Dentistry

Research is and should be a mandatory part of dentistry. The research undertaken in biosciences and advancements in technology have improved our treatment of chronic oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and dental caries, development of precision diagnostics, and the discovery of new therapeutic biomarkers. PMS College of Dental Sciences and Research has been recognized as a Scientific Industrial Research Organization by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India for our dedication to scientific research. The Kerala Start-Up Mission (KSUM) under Government of Kerala has also approved our Institution as an innovative and entrepreneurship driven development centre for our contributions towards innovation and research in oral health care.

Beyond the Books: Extracurricular Activities and Student Clubs

College is a great time to explore various activities, discover who you are and unlock hidden talents. Extracurricular activities and student clubs make college life richer and help students learn skills that can never be learnt from textbooks. Our students take part in various cultural, arts and sports events in addition to being part of a variety of student clubs, including Nature Club, Media Club and running a College Journal and Magazine. The college is also equipped with a well-stocked library, hostel, gym, yoga centre, swimming pool, and turf to meet the students’ recreational needs.

conservative dentistry and endodontics.

Preserving Natural Smiles:A Guide to Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics

Dentistry has constantly evolved over the years from a painful procedure that patients dreaded into a necessary and sought after branch of medicine with focus on both preventive care and controlling damage that has already occurred. It is also a misconception that dentistry is only about the teeth, it gives just as much importance to the gums, teeth pulp and general appearance of the teeth and mouth.

Introduction to Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics

Conservative dentistry is a branch of dentistry that consists of minimally invasive procedures and primarily focuses on preservation of teeth and its supporting structures. This conservative approach helps in providing dental care on a wider scale and longer success rates, which in turn helps in improving retention rates of patients. Treatment of caries, malformed, discoloured, unaesthetic, or fractured teeth all fall under the scope of conservative dentistry. 

Common Conservative Dental Treatments

This vast scope of dentistry can be broken down into three broad branches – Operative Dentistry, Cariology, and Endodontics.

Operative Dentistry involves the prevention and treatment of the common dental issues like 

decayed, damaged, or discoloured teeth, wherein the dentist helps to restore the function and appearance of the teeth while minimizing damage to their structures.

Cariology refers to the study of caries or cavities that form in teeth and treatments that are performed to protect teeth from decay and treat teeth surfaces so as to interrupt and prevent damage to the tissues of the teeth.

Endodontics involves treatment aimed at preserving the natural tooth by ridding it of pulpal and periapical diseases and effective dental pain management, thus making the teeth functional and aesthetic again irrespective of the age of the patient.

Benefits of Conservative Dentistry

The aim of conservative dentistry is to preserve the teeth of the patient instead of treatments that are probably easier to perform but will eventually weaken the teeth structure and cause more damage in the long run. The use of minimally invasive procedures for treatment helps to restore the teeth without altering its healthy structure and helps to prevent further decay from setting in. 

  • Reduced Dental Costs: The conservative dentistry approaches help to bring down  the overall costs of procedures for patients who need treatments such as root canals, gum contouring, enamel removal, and other restorative treatments, especially when the payments are not covered by their insurance company. 
  • Preserving Original Teeth: The minimally invasive procedures help to preserve the tooth and keep its structure intact. This helps the patients to manage their teeth better in the long run through regular checkups and cleanings. 
  • More Emphasis on Aesthetics: Dentists now enjoy the option of giving more focus on aesthetic function of the teeth, giving more attention and detail to their treatment and care thanks to conservative dentistry approaches. This helps them to provide their patients aesthetically-pleasing smiles that suit their facial structures. 
  • Natural-Looking Smiles: Unlike traditional dentistry, the minimally invasive procedures in conservative dentistry tend to provide more natural-looking results since more natural tooth material is preserved, and at lesser cost.


Derived from the Greek words ‘endo’ (inside) and ‘odons’ (tooth), endodontics studies the diseases that affect the dental pulp (which is the innermost part of the tooth) and provides procedures to treat them. The dental pulp is rich with blood vessels and nerves and any infection in the pulp can cause sensitivity and acute toothache. Using advanced treatment procedures like complicated Root Canal Treatment (RCT), Hemisection, Radisection, Apicectomy Splinting, Conservative Bridges, indirect aesthetic restorations like Porcelain/Composite Inlays and Onlays, Veneers, Endodontic surgery etc, every attempt is made to save the original tooth while remedying the decay. 

Aesthetic Endodontics

While aesthetics are not the primary focus of endodontics, it definitely needs to be one of the considerations while working with a patient. Aesthetic considerations go beyond basic discoloration of teeth and include the appearance and shape of the gums and / or bite as well. By creating smiles that improve the patient’s appearance, the endodontist is able to restore the patient’s self confidence along with providing structural strength and support. It is also important to note that degeneration of the dental pulp and subsequent endodontic access microleakage are the two main reasons for clinical crown discoloration, which can only be corrected by combining endodontics with aesthetic dentistry. 

Microscopic Dentistry in Endodontics

The use of microscopes to enhance vision in conservative dentistry and endodontics have made both diagnosis and endodontic treatment more accurate and less painful. The high-powered microscopes allow the endodontists to easily find hidden and accessory canals, preserve more of the natural tooth structure and accurately identify and treat even the most intricate dental issues with optimal outcomes. In addition to endodontics, microdentistry is also in use in cosmetic dentistry, general dentistry and implant placement and other types of oral surgery. 

dental health care


Oral health is often said to be a mirror of your overall health. Taking care of your oral hygiene is not all about looking good. It may be more important than you realize. More than just yellowing smiles, an unsightly smile and bad breath, not maintaining good oral hygiene can have an adversely affect a number of health issues like heart disease, stroke and diabetes to name a few. Preventing all types of disease – general and oral, should be the primary goal.

Despite being the hardest part of the human body, the teeth need regular maintenance to take care of it. The dental care needs change as a person age. The needs of a toddler are much different to that of an elderly person. Dental needs vary from toddlers to teens, or adolescents to adults. Even within age groups, diet, lifestyle, family dental history, medical history, all play a factor in determining the best oral hygiene practice suited for you.

Good Dental Healthcare Habits for Everyone

Irrespective of your age, there are some dental healthcare habits and practices that will always ensure healthy teeth and gums for an entire lifetime. Inculcating these practices in children, will help them grow into healthy adults.

  • Brush at least twice per day. It only takes 2-3 minutes twice a day to reduce the chances of gingivitis, cavities and bad breath. Use a soft-bristled brush and fluoride toothpaste.
  • Floss on a regular basis. Try to floss at least once every day, especially if you enjoy sweets and have sticky, sugary treats. Much like brushing your teeth, flossing takes only a few minutes, but pay you back with healthy gums and teeth.
  • Eat a healthy diet and limit sugary food and drinks.
  • Replace your toothbrush every three to four months, or sooner if bristles are splayed or worn.
  • Visit your dentist. Everyone even those people with ultra-disciplined dental care regimens need at least a yearly oral check-up. Periodontitis, cavities, gingivitis, and other dental healthcare problems can quickly surface, with little advance warning. Dental cleanings are recommended every 6 months.
  • Avoid the use of tobacco in any form.

Also, contact your dentist as soon as an oral health problem arises. Ignoring the first sign of dental disease is the most common reason for dental tooth extractions. Taking care of your oral health is an investment in your overall health.

Aside from these, let’s take a look at the unique dental care requirements through five different age groups.

Dental Care Changes Through the Years

  • Infancy

Some babies are born with teeth, but most are not. They require a different type of dental care. After feeds, it is advisable to wipe the infant’s gums with a damp cotton cloth. Keeping a baby’s gums clean and healthy will reduce the chance of infections when teeth start to come in. By 6 months of age, when the baby starts having solid food, the cloth can be swapped for a silicon finger brush.

Once the first tooth appears, you should brush with a non- fluoridated toothpaste and use a brush with extra-soft bristles. Children must be encouraged to brush their teeth on their own – but it should always be done under the guidance of an adult.

  • Childhood

For kids aged 2-12, it’s important to continue the healthy habits developed at the infant stage. Considering all the sweets and sugary drinks that kids have, the biggest problem the children face are dental cavities. They should be encouraged to brush their teeth after having sweet or sticky food like chocolates and cookies.

Once the child has mastered the act of spitting water, the switch to a fluoridated tooth paste can be made. Even very young children must be allowed to brush their teeth on their own – but it should always be done under the guidance of an adult. Aside from regular brushing twice a day and flossing, reduce sugar in their diet, and make sure they visit the dentist at least twice every year.

  • Teen Years & Young Adulthood

The teen years, including young adulthood, is an important phase for dental care. Adult supervision is minimal, so a whole new set of challenges – dietary choices, tobacco use, undisciplined brushing and flossing habits – pose potential problem spots.

Around the ages between 17-21, the “third molars or wisdom teeth” finally erupt. But as a part of evolution, as the jaw size has become smaller, most people don’t have enough room in their mouth to accommodate these molars. Regular dental visits can help determine whether wisdom teeth should be removed.

  • Adults

Dental care takes a back seat for adults when they are juggling busy schedules and extended work hours. From diabetes to heart disease, most of these problems develop during adulthood. This is also when most of the gum related issues start cropping up. All that is needed for a healthier mouth is regular brushing, flossing, dental visits.

  • Senior Citizens

Most older adults are less likely to visit their dentist, simply because they’re less active than younger people. A strong support system from kids and grandkids can help them keep up on their dental care. The leading problem for this age group, are weakened gums and worn teeth. Osteoporosis is a degenerative condition contributes to bone loss, which can negatively impact a senior citizen’s teeth. The American Dental Association recommends at least 1,000 mg of calcium per day to prevent or delay osteoporosis.

PMS College of Dental Science and Research – Affordable, Family-Friendly Care for Patients of All Ages!

PMS College of Dental Science and Research, is widely recognized as one of the best dental colleges in Kerala. The college has advanced dental care facilities and a commitment to high-quality dental research. From kids to senior citizens, a full range of dental services, including cleanings, oral hygiene, dentures, fillings, root canals, and more are offered here. If you haven’t been to the dentist in a while, or are looking for top notch dental care for you and your family, schedule an appointment today!